Project Description

Second Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (RWSSP-II)

Total Project Cost

US$ 41.5m + US$ 32.10m = US$73.61million


US$ 25.3m+27m = US$52.3 million + DFID 5m


US$ 6.6 million + 1.2m = US$7.8milion


US$ 4.6 million + 3.9m = US$8.5 million

Project Duration

2005 - 2012


75 districts

Target Population

1,045,464 people

Women and girls the primary beneficiaries of the project, would constitute more than 50% of the population benefited. The project selection and monitoring procedures will ensure that dalit and janajati groups share equitably in the project benefits.

Target Schemes


Sector/ Sub-Sector

Water supply (90%); Sanitation (5%); Health (5%)


Water supply (75%); Sanitation (25%)


Gender; Other human development; Participation and civic engagement; Pollution management and environmental health; Rural services and infrastructure

Project Objective

To improve rural water supply and sanitation sector institutional performance and mainstream the

"Fund Board" approach in the

Government's system, and

support communities to form inclusive local water supply and sanitation user groups that can plan, implement, and operate drinking water and sanitation infrastructure that delivers sustainable health, hygiene, and productivity benefits to rural households.

Project Components

  1. Strengthening and Operation of the Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Fund Development Board

(US$ 10.5 million, 14%)

  1. Selection and Construction of Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Schemes

(US$ 47.02 million, 64%)

  1. Institutional Development Studies

(US$ 2.43 million, 3%)


19% contingency cost

Role of women

  • All WSUCs have at least 3 women members
  • Women empowerment initiatives mainstreamed in the project design through the promotion of participation and representation of women in decisionmaking positions in the WSUCs; the establishment of WTSSs and the formation of savings and credit societies; and the promotion of NFE for women.

Innovative approaches

  • Risk Insurance Program. About 36 WSUCs have obtained insurance cover.
  • Genderfocused Livelihood Program (Jeevika Karyakram) provided support to WTSSs to approach private banks and apply for soft loans.
  • Social Accountability Program (Jagaran Karyakram) to promote social accountability over and above the checks and controls required during scheme implementation.
  • Support and contributions by DDCs and VDCs who played an active role in the formation and registration of WSUGs under the Water Resource Act.


Schemes Completed

  • 1,465 in five batches (V – IX) (Including retroactive 45 schemes)

WSUGs and WSUCs formed

  • 1,465
  • All WSUCs have at least 3 women members (585 have more than 3)
  • 11% of WSUCs have female chairpersons.

Beneficiaries served

  • 1,140,892
  • About 54% of beneficiaries are from marginalized groups (dalits, indigenous people and minorities).
  • Female beneficiaries account for 50% of total project beneficiaries.

Healthy home surveys

  • Were carried out three times from project development to implementation in all schemes.

Health and hygiene education sessions

  • N/A

Village Health Promoters recruited and trained

  • 1,700 women

Village Maintenance Workers recruited and trained

  • 1,513

NFE class graduates

  • 45,000 women

Latrines constructed

  • 137,536
    • SRLF: 64,407
    • Self Help: 72,080
    • Institutions: 1,049


  • 2,691 WTSS
  • 2,885 Credit and Saving group

Jeevika Committees

  • 53

Jagaran Committees

  • 300


  • The strength of the community as organizing principle for sustainable development in Nepal.
  • Benefits of longterm engagement in the RWSS sector.
  • The benefits of implementing a communitycentered RWSS approach through an apex institution such as the Fund Board
  • Importance of behavioral change for health impact in RWSS projects.
  • The importance of livelihood support to enhance gender impact.
  • Implications of growing demand for higher water service levels in rural areas.
  • The importance of the development phase for the sustainability of RWSS schemes.